1491 The Birth of the Nation
in the Exodus: They went
into Egypt as a family; they
came out as a nation.
1445 Conquest of Promised Land
1095 Saul appointed as first king
(1 Sam 10:1).
1048 David captures Jerusalem
1004 Solomon dedicates First Temple
in Jerusalem at the Feast of
Tabernacles (2 Chr 6-7).
974 The civil war divides the Kingdom
into “Israel” & “Judah” down south
(1 Kgs 11).
721 Israel defeated by Assyria; northern tribes exiled.
607 Pharaoh Neco of Egypt defeated by Nebuchadnezzar at the Battle of Carchemish.
606 1st siege of Jerusalem by Babylon. Daniel & his three friends taken captive to
Babylon; vassal king rules (2 Kgs 24:2; Dan 1:1).
597 2nd siege of Jerusalem by Babylon; 10,000 deported including Ezekiel (2Kgs 24:11).
587 3rd siege of Jerusalem by Babylon. Jerusalem falls; Temple destroyed (2Kgs 25:2).
539 Persian Empire conquers Babylon (Dan 5). Daniel showed Cyrus God’s letter to Cyrus
(Isa 45). Cyrus orders return to rebuild their Temple—thus, the first regathering
445 Nehemiah gains authority to rebuild the city (and walls) of Jerusalem. This triggers
the 69 weeks of Daniel 9:25 (see Daniel’s 70 Weeks briefing pack).
332 Alexander the Great conquers the Persians, beginning the Hellenistic rule of Judea.
167 Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) ransacks Jerusalem, prohibits Torah practice, sets up the
“Abomination of Desolation” in the Temple. Maccabean revolt begins.
164 Temple recaptured and rededicated. Origin of Hanukkah celebration (Jn 10:22).
142 Hasmonean dynasty rules Jerusalem.
63 Roman army under Pompey conquers Judea.
40 Parthians conquer Judea.
37 Herod regains Jerusalem.
20 Herod begins reconstruction and expansion of the Temple.
1 (BC) Birth of Christ.
7 Caesar Augustus appoints Caponius Procurator. Removed judicial authority
from Judea: “The Scepter departed from Judah.”
28–32 Ministry of Jesus. Crucifixion under Herod Antipas. The tragedy of all history
(Mt 23: 37-39). National blindness decreed (Lk 19:40ff;Rom 11:25). Destruction
of Jerusalem predicted. The Diaspora begins (Lk 21:24). SEE LUKE 3:1
37–41 Roman emperor Caligula attempts to have his image established in the Temple.
66–73 Jewish revolt against the Romans.
70 Fall of Jerusalem: Second Temple destroyed by Titus. Not mentioned in the Gospels
nor in the epistles; this would have been used in apologetic arguments; significant
evidence for being written prior to a.d. 66. Also, Qumran evidences, et al.
73 Last stand of the Jewish revolt at Masada.
90 Council of Jabneh (Jamnia) redefines Judaism.
132 Bar Kochba revolt; destroys the 12th Legion; begin rebuilding the Temple.
135 Romans crush the Jewish revolt. Hadrian orders Jerusalem plowed under. He builds
Aelia Capitolina on the ruins with a temple to Jupiter built over the site of the Jewish
Temple. Names Israel “Palestina.”
313 Emperor Constantine legalizes Christianity throughout the Roman Empire; moves his
capital to Byzantium “Constantinople”).
378 Emperor Theodosius makes Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire.
570 Mohammed is born at Mecca. The Rise of Islam begins. (Syria fell in 634. Jerusalem,
637; Egypt, 638; Persia, 640; North Africa, 689; Spain, 711. Stopped at Tours,
614 Persians sack Jerusalem.
628 Byzantines recapture Jerusalem under Heraclius.
638 Jerusalem conquered by Caliph Omar. Muslim domination of Jerusalem begins.
732 Charles Martel defeats the Moors at Tours, France, arresting the incursion of Islam
750 Abbasid Dynasty of Baghdad seizes control of Jerusalem.
950 Egyptian-based Fatimid Dynasty conquers Jerusalem. All synagogues and churches
1071 Seljuks conquer Palestine and vandalize Jerusalem, persecuting both Jews
1097 Godfrey de Bouillon leads First Crusade to Jerusalem.
1099 Crusaders lay siege to Jerusalem and recapture city; wide-scale massacre of
almost 40,000 Jews and Muslims; Crusaders declare Jerusalem capital of their
1187 Muslims recapture Jerusalem under Saladin, who encourages Jews and Christians
to settle in Jerusalem and help him fight Latin Crusaders.
1241 Saladin dies; heirs battle each other; Germany brokers deal to return all of Jerusalem
except Temple Mount to Crusader control.
1244 Crusaders expelled from Jerusalem by mercenaries hired by Egyptian Sultan
1st (1097–1099): Captured Jerusalem.
2nd (1147–1149): Postponed the fall of Jerusalem.
3rd (1189–1191): army failed to reach Jerusalem.
4th (1201–1204): captured and plundered Constantinople.
5th (1228–1229): took Jerusalem, but soon lost it.
6th (1248–1254): a failure.
1291 Mamelukes rule from Cairo; Jerusalem becomes city of exile for dangerous criminals
and disfavored officials.
1516 Ottoman Empire succeeds Mameluke Empire. Jerusalem in Turkish hands for 400 yrs.
1537–41 Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt under Suleiman the Magnificent.
1544 Muslim authorities seal the Golden Gate because of a prophecy that the Messiah
would enter through this gate.
1799 Napoleon moves against Ottoman Empire from Egyptian front; stopped before
he reaches Jerusalem.
1860 Mishkenot Sha’ananim, first Jewish neighborhood built outside Jerusalem walls.
1881 Widespread programs in Russia reinforce Jewish national awakening.
1882 Publication of Leo Pinsker’s Auto-Emancipation, calling for the establishment
of a Jewish state. Beginning of the first wave of Zionist immigration to Palestine.
1894 Theodor Herzl attends the trial of Alfred Dreyfus in Paris and witnesses outpouring
of French anti-Semitism.
1896 Herzl’s Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) published.
1897 Herzl convenes First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland.
1915 Joseph Trumpeldor founds Zion Mule Corps of British Army in World War I,
the first Jewish fighting unit in centuries.
1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement signed by Britain, France and Russia.
1917 Balfour Declaration.
1919 Versailles Peace Conference. Wilson argues for self-determination of peoples.
Jewish-Arab accord: Jews claim Jewish home in Palestine; Arabs claim Arab
state from Iraq to Yemen (excluding Palestine).
1920 San Remo Conference. Valdimir Jabotinsky found Haganah, the Jewish
self-defense force, in Palestine.
1921 British decide to install Abdullah in “Trans-Jordan.” Samuel appoints haj
Amin al-Husseini, grand mufti of Jerusalem.
1922 League of Nations officially ratifies British Mandate over Palestine, with
aim of building Jewish National Home. Churchill White Paper creates
“Trans-Jordan” east of Jordan River, taking 78% of land allocated for
1925 Vladimir Jabotinsky found Zionist Revisionism, forerunner of the
Herut political party & the modern Likud Party
1929 Arab riots in Palestine. Massacre of Jews in Hebron and Safed.
Arabs demand end to Jewish immigration.
1930 British White Paper limits Jewish immigration to Palestine.
1933 Hitler comes to power in Germany.
1935 The Nuremberg Laws
1936–39 Campaign of Arab violence in Palestine. Arab rioters murder
500 Jews and thousands of Arabs, demanding an end to Jewish
immigration. Arab nationalist movements riot to stop Jewish
homeland in Palestine; throw their support to Hitler in World War II.
1937 British Peel Commission asserts that Jewish National Home cannot be
built in Palestine. Recommends repartition of Palestine into tiny
Jewish state (5% of total area) and Arab state in remainder. Peel
Plan is rejected by both Arabs and Jews. Britain halts Jewish immigration
to Palestine, condemning millions of European Jews to the Holocaust.
1938 Munich Conference and betrayal of the Czechs. Hitler is given the Sudetenland.
1939 Hitler overruns Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain White Paper announces end to
Jewish National Home and promises control of immigration into Palestine to
the Arabs within five years. British blockade Palestine against “illegal” Jewish
immigration. Hitler invades Poland. World War II begins.
1941 Mufti relocates to Berlin. Meets with Hitler; announces intention of creating
“fascist” Arab state, and agitates for the destruction of world Jewry. Instigates
terrorism against Arab moderates also.
1942 Nazi conference at Wannsee decides on destruction of all Jews in Europe.
1944 Jewish Brigade, part of the British forces, fights alongside the Allies.
1945 World War II ends. Liberation of the death camps where six million Jews died.
Arabs demand end to Jewish immigration to Palestine. “Illegal” smuggling of
Holocaust survivors into Palestine by Jews. Increase of Jewish underground
actions against British blockade and British administration in Palestine.
1946 Irgun bombs King David Hotel.
1947 Britain announces withdrawal from Palestine. United Nations announces
partition into Jewish and Arab states. Dead Sea Scrolls discovered.
1948 Invasion of Arab forces aimed at preventing the establishment of the Jewish State.
Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel. David Ben Gurion
first Prime Minister.
1948–49 Israel’s War of Independence. Arab armies from five countries invade Israel.
Jordanian forces occupy Judea, Samaria, and eastern half of Jerusalem,
including Old City and Temple Mount; Jordan annexes East Jerusalem;
destroying all Jewish settlements. Egypt occupies Gaza. War of Independence
ends in Jewish victory.
1948–52 800,000 Jews expelled from Arab countries. Most flee to Israel and are
absorbed. 650,000 Arabs flee from Israel and are confined to refugee camps.
1951 Yasser Arafat of the Husseini clan begins organizing Palestinian radicals in
Cairo and recruits Abu Iyad, Abu Jihad, and other future leaders of the PLO.
1952–56 Terrorist raids into Israel from adjoining Arab states, including
Egyptian-sponsored fedayeen raids from Gaza. Israeli army adopts
policy of reprisals.
1956 Sinai Campaign, Oct 29 – Nov 5. Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal
and blocks Israeli shipping. Israel captures Sinai from Egypt. Terrorist bases
in Gaza dismantled. U.S.-Soviet pressure forces Israeli withdrawal from Sinai
without peace treaty. Dwight Eisenhower guarantees protection of Israeli
1964 PLO is founded in Cairo with aim of “liberating” Palestine. PLO Charter calling
for Israel’s destruction adopted. Campaign of terror attacks across Israel’s
1967 Egypt floods Sinai with troops and blockades Israeli shipping in the Red Sea.
American guarantee to protect Israel fails to take effect.
Six Day War, June 5-10. Israel defeats combined forces of Egypt, Syria, Iraq,
and Jordan. Captures Sinai and Gaza, Judea and Samaria, and the
Golan Heights. Jerusalem is reunited. Jewish settlements in eastern
Jerusalem, Judea, and Samaria are reestablished. Moshe Dayan gives
administration of the Temple Mount to the Waqf, the High Muslim
Council of Jordan.
1968 PLO hijacking of Israeli airliner to Algeria marks beginning of PLO campaign of
1969 Yasser Arafat, head of the Fatah guerilla wing, gains control of the PLO.
1969–70 War of Attrition. Egypt and Syria launch campaign of continuous attacks
along Suez Canal and Golan Heights. PLO steps up terror attacks across
Jordan River. Heavy Israeli retaliation brings war to an end.
1970 Nasser dies and is succeeded by Anwar Sadat. PLO attempts to take over
Jordan. King Hussein massacres Palestinian Arabs and expels Arafat and
the PLO in “Black September.”
1971–75 PLO relocates to Lebanon and establishes de facto state on its territory,
which becomes base for all international terror organizations. PLO
campaign of massacres in northern Israel.
1972 Munich massacre of Israeli Olympic athletes earns PLO international notoriety.
1973 Yom Kippur War, Oct 5-24. Egypt and Syria launch surprise attack against Israel.
Despite heavy casualties, Israeli army reverses tide and advances toward Cairo
and Damascus. Arabs ask for cease-fire after three weeks of fighting. Israel
negotiates disengagement agreement with Egypt and Syria, setting ceasefire
lines in the Sinai and the Golan. Arab oil embargo is imposed. International oil
prices rise dramatically.
1975 United Nations passes resolution defaming Zionism as racism (!) PLO control
of Lebanon is challenged, and full-scale civil war erupts between Moslems
1976 Syria invades Lebanon and sets up permanent control over more than half
of that country. (Western press ignores.) Israeli raid on Entebbe airport in
Uganda on July 4, frees 103 hostages held by PLO.
1977 Likud government elected in Israel. Menachem Begin is first Likud prime
minister. President Anwar Sadat of Egypt responds to Begin’s invitation
and visits Israel. (Leads to peace treaty in 1979.)
1978–79 First wave of Jewish emigration from Soviet Union as result of
Soviet-American détente reaches peak. 200,000 Soviet Jewish
immigrants arrive in Israel.
1979 Egypt and Israel sign Camp David Accords. Israel agrees to return Sinai.
1981 Anwar Sadat is assassinated.
1982 Israeli ambassador is shot in London by PLO. Israel invades Lebanon
with aim of dismantling PLO terror bases. PLO is expelled from Lebanon
and forced to relocate in Tunis.
1984 U.S. and Israel sign strategic cooperation agreement formalizing alliance.
1985 Israel withdraws from Lebanon and establishes security zone north of
Israeli-Lebanese border. Syria remains in control of most of Lebanon.
U.S. takes lead in war against terror after PLO hijacks Achille Lauro cruise
ship. Midair interception of terrorists by U.S. fighter planes.
1986 U.S. and Britain bomb Libya in retaliation for Libyan-supported terror attacks.
1987 PLO banned in U.S. for terrorist activities. Intifada, the Palestinian uprising begins.
1988 PLO pressures Jordan’s King Hussein into renouncing all claims to the West Bank;
from Algiers, PLO declares establishment of Palestinian state with capital
1989–91 Collapse of Soviet Union. Second wave of Soviet immigration to Israel brings
600,000 in five years.
1990 Israeli airlift brings most of Ethiopian Jewry to Israel. Saddam Hussein of
Iraq Invades Kuwait.
1991 Gulf War. U.S.-led international coalition drives Saddam from Kuwait. Israel
is attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles, but is kept from intervening by the U.S.
Madrid Peace Conference among Israel, Syria, Lebanon, and a
Jordanian-Palestinian delegation. Israel branded as the chief obstacle to
peace, and is pressured to negotiate with PLO representatives.
1992 Labor returns to power in Israel. Yitzhak Rabin becomes prime minister.
1992–93 Secret negotiations with the PLO in Oslo, Norway.
1992 Declarations of Principles (“Oslo I”) signed at the White House ceremony,
transferring control of Jericho and Gaza to PLO control.
1994 Peace Treaty signed with Jordan (Cf. Dan 11:41). Gaza Strip and Jericho
turned over to PLO control; Yassar Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin, and Shimon
Peres receive Nobel Peace Prize. Yasser Arafat: This is the man who
ordered the murder of the school children in Avivim, Ma’alot, and Antwerp;
of 11 Jewish Olympic athletes in Munich; of synagogue worshipers in Istanbul,
of a child and his pregnant mother in Alfeh Menashe, and of a mother an her
children on the bus in Jericho. This is the man who ordered innocent Arabs in
Nablus hanged by their chins on butcher’s hooks until they died; by whose
orders the bellies of pregnant Arab women were split open before the eyes
of their husbands and the hands of Arab children were chopped off while
their parents looked on. Clearly, there is little connection between character
and destiny. For Christmas, 1995, Bill Clinton and Yitzhak Rabin chipped in
to get Yasser Arafat a nice gift: Bethlehem.
1995 Interim Agreement (“Oslo II”) signed with the PLO which cedes Bethlehem,
Hebron, and over 450 villages to Palestinian control. Prime Minister
Yitzhak Rabin assassinated; Shimon Peres succeeds Rabin.
1996 Benjamin Netanyahu wins first national election for Prime Minister.
“Final” status talks begin that will decide the fate of Jerusalem.
1999 Ehud Barak elected Prime Minister. “Final” resolution targeted for Year 2000.
2000 Yasser Arafat rejected an unprecedented offer from Israel in exchange for
peace. Israel offered the Palestinians 97% of the West Bank, part of East
Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip, and the reunification of tens of thousands of
Palestinian family members. Palestinians responded to Israel’s peace
offering with violence and the second Palestinian Intifada was started
after Defense Minister Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
Supported by Palestinian security forces and encouraged by Palestinian
leaders, terrorists and Palestinian militia groups attacked Israeli outposts
2002 Bush urged the Palestinian people to replace Arafat, with a leader
“not compromised by terror.”
2004 Arafat died November 11 at age 75 after suffering a brain hemorrhage
and coma. He was admitted to the hospital October 29 with a blood
ailment and digestive problems that were never clearly
2005 President Bush welcomed new PA president Mahmoud Abbas to the White House.
2006 Israel Prime Minister Ariel Sharon suffered a debilitating stroke on January 4
and remains in a vegetative coma. Ehud Olmert was elected prime minister of Israel
on April 14. Israel’s former prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu was re-elected
leader of the Likud party, cementing his grip on the main right-wing opposition party.
2006 Israel War with Lebanon. The conflict started on July 12 & continued until a
UN-brokered ceasefire went into effect on August 14, though it formally ended
on September 8, when Israel lifted its naval blockade of Lebanon. 175 Security
Council resolutions were passed before 1990: 97 were directed against Israel
(55%). Of the 690 General Assembly resolutions voted on before 1990: 429 were
directed against Israel (62%).
2007 Operation Orchard: Israeli Air Force destroyed a suspected nuclear reactor
in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria which was built with the assistance of North Korea.
2008 Operation Cast Lead: IDF forces conducted a large-scale military operation in the
Gaza Strip during which dozens of targets there were attacked in response to ongoing r
ocket fire on the western Negev. (to 2009)
2010 Israeli naval forces raided and captured a flotilla of ships, organized by the Free
Gaza Movement and the Turkish Foundation for Human Rights and Freedoms and
Humanitarian Relief (IHH), which were attempting to break the Israeli and
Egyptian blockade of Gaza. During the takeover, a violent confrontation erupted
on board the largest ship of the flotilla. As a result, nine activists are killed and
several dozen passengers and seven IDF soldiers are wounded.
2010 Israeli helicopter disaster in Romania: Six Israeli Air Force (IAF) officers
(four pilots and two mechanics) and one Romanian Air Force officer died when
an IAF SikorskyCH-53 Sea Stallion helicopter (known in Israel as a “Yasur”) crashed,
during a joint Israeli-Romanian aviation exercise in the Carpathian Mountains
in northern Romania.
2010 Israel’s former President Moshe Katsav was convicted of two counts of rape,
obstruction of justice and other sexual offences by a court in Tel Aviv.
2011 The former President of Israel Moshe Katsav was sentenced to seven years in prison,
two years probation and payment of compensation to his victims on charges of rape,
indecent assault, sexual harassment and obstruction of justice.
2011 the 2011 Israeli housing protests erupted.
2011 Israeli embassy attack: About 3,000 Egyptian protesters stormed the
Israeli embassy in Cairo.
2011 Israel and Hamas begin a major prisoner swap in which the Israeli Army soldier
Gilad Shalit, who had been held in captivity for five years, is released in exchange
for 1,027Palestinian and Israeli-Arab prisoners held in Israel, including 280 prisoners
serving life sentences for planning and perpetrating terror attacks.
2012 Operation Pillar of Defense: IDF forces conducted an eight-day military operation in the
Hamas governed Gaza Strip during which dozens of targets there were attacked in response
to ongoing rocket fire on the western Negev.
2014 Operation Protective Edge: An IDF military reaction following the escalation of
major rocket attacks fired by Hamas from the Gaza strip targeting major Israeli cities
including:Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Beer Sheva, Sderot, Ashkelon, Dimona, Zichron Yaakov.
1491 (BC) to 2008 (AD): Unfortunately, I do not remember who the original author is (2006), though according to my notes, I did have permission to reprint it.
2008 (AD) to 2014 (AD) supplied by History of Palestine (Wikipedia).